When you start a new Django project using the
django-admin startproject helper, it automatically generates a
settings.py module for you. This is great when you want to start developing quickly, but you’ll want to change this as soon as you’re ready to deploy to a production server. Ideally you’ll have different settings for each environment (
testing, etc.) You can do this by creating multiple settings modules within a
First, create a
settings package in your project’s main package (if you used
django-admin startproject blog you should have a
blog package - add your
settings package within the
blog package.) Create four new modules,
testing.py inside your new
settings package. Your directory structure should look similar to this:
blog/ |- blog/ |- settings/ |- __init__.py |- base.py |- local.py |- prod.py |- testing.py |- __init__.py |- settings.py |- urls.py |- wsgi.py |- manage.py
Copy and paste the contents of
settings/base.py - this will act as the core of our settings. Once you’ve done that, delete
settings.py - we don’t need it anymore.
Now’s a good time to change a few default settings.
DEBUG = True to
DEBUG = False. By setting this to
False, we make sure that debug information won’t be displayed on the production site.
SECRET_KEY = <some long string> to
SECRET_KEY = os.environ['SECRET_KEY'] (feel free to change the string
SECRET_KEY to something more specific, like
BLOG_SECRET_KEY.) This is a really important step because you never want to commit sensitive information like a secret key to your repo. At this point I like to define my secret key environment variable. Depending on the shell you use, edit its
.rc file (I use zsh so I’ll edit my
~/.zshrc file and add something like this:
We now need to import the base settings into each of the environment modules. Add
from .base import * to the top of your
testing.py modules. In
DEBUG and set it to
At this point we have environment specific settings, and have removed sensitive information from our codebase. The last step is to actually use these new settings modules. If you’re expecting to just run
./manage.py runserver and everything will work, well… it won’t. We need to tell Django which settings module to use. So we need to run
./manage.py runserver --settings=blog.settings.local. If you want to run the test suite you’d call
./manage.py test --settings=blog.settings.testing.
Keep in mind that you’re not limited to just
testing environments - you can add any number of environments and have specific settings for them using this approach!
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